Saturday, November 12, 2011

COMPLETE: Class date 11/10/11

Overview of what wecovered today in class:
We began our notes together as a class
Practiced on UP p. 41-42 (do not need to turn in)
We went over terms on UP p. 43 (memorize these if you have not already)
Began "Investigating Inherited Human Traits" lab UP p. 45-50 (homework if not finished in class)
began UP p.55-57 (homework if not finished)

Class notes:
Today we finished class notes on genetics p.1-7, though we did not do page 5. In thenotes we first covered Gregor Mendel, who is also known as "the father ofgenetics". This is because he was the first to analyze patters ofinheritance scientifically. To do this he performed an experiment. In this, hetook the Stamen (male organ with sperm) of a purple garden pea plant andpollonated the Carpel (female organ with ovaries and eggs) of a white gardenpea plant. He next planted the hybrid (offspring of two different true-breedingvarieties) which became a new P (parent) generation. When the plant grew, heanalyzed seven different characteristics: flower color (purple or white),flower position (axial or terminal), seed color (yellow or green), seed shape(round or wrinkled), pod shape (inflated or constricted), pod color (green oryellow), and stem length (tall or dwarf). These flowers in this F1 (children)generation were found to majoritativly have the characteristics of the purplegarden pea! Mendel concluded that the purple flower had the more dominant gene.Based on this, Mendel's 2 Principles arose. His first was his principle ofsegregation, which stated alleles separate during gamete formation (meiosis),and they fuse together again in fertilization. His other principle, that of independent assortment, which we learned of in the last unit.
Today, know what Mendel did as a testcross, the mating of an individual with anunknown gentype with a homozygous recessive genotype. This is used to find outwhat the genotype of the first individual is, whether its homozygous dominant(QQ), homozygous recessive (qq), or heterozygous (Qq).

UP p.41-42:
We did not spend much time on this inclass, we just did it if we finished the quiz on meiosis and we had time. Butbasically what we did is we looked at different human traits and found out ifwe were dominant or recessive. Through this activity we learned that if youhave a dominant gene, and you want to write the genotype, you must write Q_, asyou don't know if it is homozygous dominant or a hybrid.
the detached earlobe is Q_ (dominant) and the attached earlobe is qq (recessive)

UP p. 43 terms YOU MUST KNOW:
genotype: gene sequence that gives a phenotype (ie QqRR, Qq, rr)
homozygous: gene sequence with two of the SAME characteristics (ie QQ, rr)
heterozygous (also known as hybrid): two DIFFERENT characteristics (ie, Qq, Rr note: the uppercase letter is the dominant gene while the lower is recessive)
trait/characteristic: the way something is (ie color of hair, amount of a certain protein) incomplete dominant trait: when both the dominant and recessive genes are expressed (ie QQ green, Qq yellow, qq blue)
pure breeding:an organism with only homozygous genes (ie QQ, rr, GG, bb)
phenotype: physical appearance ( ie attached or detached ear lobe)

Self fertilization: fertilization within the same organism (occurs in plants)
Cross fertilization: fertilization of two different organisms in the same species

Punnett Square: a method to figure out the possible genotypes of a future generation(note: if the genotype has one dominant gene then the gen has a dominanteffect, the exception being an incomplete dominant trait.)

Lab on UP p.45-50:
If you were not here, do this lab for homework, having a partner in the activityis optional.
If you were here and did not complete the lab then complete it for homework.

Punnett Square practice on UP p. 55-57:
We began this in class, do it for homework. (a few notes on this activity: theuppercase/dominant gene ALWAYS comes before the lowercase /recessive gene whenwriting a genotype. Also, a Genotypic ration shows the possible outcomes if theegg and sperm are fertilized, ie 1QQ: 2Gg: 1gg. Always simplify genotypicratios. A Phenotypic ratio shows the ratio of possible physical appearences, ie3orange: 1blue. Also, make sure if you are doing or making a Punnett Square,you ALWAYS HAVE A KEY TO SHOW THE TRAIT, DOMINANT ALLELE, AND RECESSIVE ALLELE.)

Summaryof homework:
readCh. 9 if not done already
do pages 45-50 and 55-57 in the UP
also if your name is ***MARK*** you gotta scribe post commin' at ya
(note: sorry about all the formating issues, not my fault, the computer is just being a dork)


  1. Jeremy- This post was very helpful! It was nice how you defined the terms AND gave examples. Also, all of your pictures were very helpful. Great post.

  2. Jeremy I really liked how you went out of your way to include extra pictures like the detached/attached ear lobe picture, which helped people visualize what they are reading. Nice post, and I like the cartoon!

  3. Jeremy,
    Your post was very detailed and helpful. But I think it was a little too 'wordy'... You should add colors and underlining so its easier to understand. It would be more effective if you used a bullet point format rather than paragraphs.Good Job though!
    -Melissa A