Monday, October 24, 2011

Scribe Post 10/24

Today in Class:
talked about scribe posts
Finished notes on immune system


  • work on disease project-due Monday

  • read spice lab UP 39-45 and finish procedure on Google Docs

  • Worksheet on Bubonic Plague UP 35-35? (It says on the calendar, but I'm not sure)

Scribe Post:
· New requirements:
· One picture on each post (at least)
· need to comment on three separate posts-constructive criticism or explanations
· not just “this is good”
Started on Lymphocytes slide “recognizing the Invaders”
Lymphocytes=white blood cells
-produce immune response
-make B cells and T cells
B Cells
-humoral immunity
-mature in bone marrow
-defend against viruses and bacteria present in body fluids
-secrete antibodies
-molecular weapons of defense
-shaped like Y to join to antigen
-Two Jobs: Recognize and bind to certain antigen, Counter antigen’s effect
-main job is to mark invaders

T Cells
-go to thymus
-cell mediated immunity: fights viruses/ bacteria in body cells already infected
Helper T cells
-Encounter white blood cell that has injested microbe and has displayed the foreign antigen on its surface
-Receptors on helper T cell bind to the white blood cell at this site
-The binding activates T cell to:
Grow, divide, multiply
Stimulate cytotoxic T cells
Cytotoxic T Cells
-Identify infected cells
-bind to infected cell
-secrete Perforin (a protein) that creates a hole in the cell’s membrane
-other T cell proteins enter the cell and cause the cell to die

-immune system has a great memory
-remembers antigens we have already encountered: destroys virus before symptoms occur

Active Immunity
-requires work from body
-body produces antibodies as defense
-by having disease or vaccination
Vaccine: Weakened variant of disease-causing microbe or one of its components
-the body recognizes the invader and creates antibodies so it is recognized on reoccurance

Passive Immunity
-no work in body
- injected (shot) of antibodies
-through mother’s bloodstream
IMPORTANT: needs boosters because the body still does not know how to make these antibodies

Primary Immune Response:
-first exposure of lymphocytes to an antigen
-takes several days to produce antibodies
-memory cells then produced to ‘remember’ antigen
-located in lymph nodes

Secondary Immune Response:
-when same antigen is encountered
-memory cells rapidly multiply to produce lymphocytes
-they produce antibodies
-faster and more effective: usually symptom free
-already has “recipe” for antibodies
Immune Disorders
-happens when immune system malfunctions
-Allergies: abnormal sensitivity to antigens in environment
-auto immune disorders: immune system turns against body’s own molecules
-immune deficiency diseases: when body lacks one or more components of immune system

-Develop in 2 stages
1. First exposure to allergen
2. Subsequent exposures to same allergen produce allergy symptoms
-allergen enters blood stream
-B cells make anti bodies
-antibodies attach to mast cell
-allergen binds to antibodies on mast cell
-histamine is released causing allergy symptoms

Autoimmune diseases
-Rheumatoid arthritis
-Juvenile Diabetes
-Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

-organ needs to match host’s cells as close as possible
-take amino suppressants to help decrease possible rejection
-this weakens the immune system so the people cannot be exposed to any illnesses

Immunodeficiency Diseases
-faulty immune system
-Hodgkin Disease

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
-HIV attacks helper T cells (cells that activate B cells)
-Causes weak immune system so that the cause of death is usually a simple illness not HIV

· Look At UP 49-55 for additional info- good for studying
· Study!!!! Test Friday!

Next Scribe ***Will***

Friday, October 21, 2011

Scribe Post for Friday, October 21

Today in Class:

Ms. Andrews stamped UP 31-32, we corrected it in class.

Watched 5 min Germ Theory Video

Immunity Notes

UP 31-32

Disease Agent How Spread

  • Common Cold : Many viruses

  • Influenza: Virus

  • Malaria: Parasite (Plasmodium)

  • Typhus: Bacteria (Ricksettia) spread by ticks fleas mites and body lice.

  • Tuberculosis: Bacteria

  • Whooping Cough: Bacteria

  • Poliomyelitis: Virus

  • Rabies: Virus Bite from infected mammal

  • Infectious Mononucleosis: Virus

  • Mumps: Virus

  • Pneumonia: Bacteria, Fungi, Virus

  • Meningitis: Bacteria, Virus

  • Ringworm: Fungus touching the fungi, contact with a person with ringworm or something the person has touched

  • Tetanus: Bacterium

  • Chicken Pox: Virus

  • AIDS: Virus

  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Bacteria (Rickettsia)

  • Amoebic Dysentery: Protozoan (Amoeba)

  • Streptococcal Soar Throat: Bacterium

  • German Measles: Virus

  • Botulism: Bacteria

  • Athletes Foot: Fungus

  • Measles: Virus

Germ Theory Video

Before the late 1800s, doctors didn't see a need to wash hands because they didn't know about germs. This caused the death of many patients.

Louis Pasteur:

lost 3 out of his 5 kids to typhoid fever- inspired him to figure out the cause

he had a beer and wine industry- wanted to figure out what made his products spoil

discovered contamination of germs

he boiled the wine and sourness went away-"Pasteurization method"

this led to discovery of Germ Theory: One Microorganism causes one disease in everybody.

Immunity Notes:

Overview of
Body's Defenses against pathogens:

Cells are specific-specific protiens- (have name tags). Body atacks cells that have different name tags

First Line of Defense:Not Specific

  • External barriers: physical barriers and chemical agents that prevent foreign invaders from getting deep inside

  • skin-main

  • Mucous Membranes- hair and mucus in nostrils

  • Secretions of Skin and Membrane-sweat saliva tears contain lysozymes that disrupt bacteria cell wall.

-Also the saltiness of the sweat saliva and tears=hypertonic solution that causes the bacteria cell to lyse.

Second Line of Defense: Not Specific

  • Internal- invader penetrates inside external barriers

  • Phagocytic white blood cells called leukocytes prduced in bone marrow.

  • Neutrophils- phagocytic WBCs that engulf bacteria and viruses in infected tissue

  • macrophages- large amoeboid WBCs

  • Natural killer/cytotoxic cells- attack virus infected body cells, causing them to burst.

  • Defensive proteins

  • Complement proteins- proteins in blood that can flag the microbe surface for easier identification by macrophages, cut holes in microbial membranes to cause death, and speed up inflammatory response, cause invading cells to lyse.

  • Interferons- interfere with microbes. proteins made by virus infected cells (interferons) bind to nearby healthy cells the help the infected cell. The healthy cells produces proteins that inhibit viral replication .

  • Inflammatory Response when tissue is damaged, body's response.

Bacteria releases exotoxins that the phagocytes sense.

Phagocytes move into infected area with fluid, causes swelling. Phagocytes, macrophages, neutrophils engulf bacteria and cell debris, tisue heals.

Histamines- chemical causing blood vessels to dilate and leak fluid into tissue making it swell (swelling helps dilute toxins from bacteria, bring O2, promotes scabbing)

Prostaglandins- chemical increases blood flow to wond causing redness, warmth, sends pain signal to brain.

Pyrons are chemicals (fire makers) that travel to hypothalamus in brain causing fever. This is bad when enzymes denature.

The first and second line of defense are not specific because they don't really know what they're attacking and just want to get the bad thing out. (do not distinguish microorganisms)

Lymphatic System (falls in between)

  • returns tissue fluid to circulatory system

  • fights infection

  • has network vessels

  • lymph noodles

  • bone marrow

  • spleen, tonsils, thymus

  • main battle ground when fighting infection

  • swollen glands is when lymph nodes fill with lyphocytes

  • where WBCs stored

Third Line of Defense: Specific

  • when nonspecific defenses fail

  • recognizes and attacks inading microbes like bacteria, cancer cells, prtozoa, pollen, parasitic worms, house dust, mold spores, cells of tranplanted tisssue

  • antigen- molecules on surface of virus or foriegn cells, and there is one antigen for every bacteria or virus you've ever encountered

  • antibodies are defensive proteins produced by the immune system when it detects antigens in blood plasma and are specific to one antigen and counter its effects, molecular defense, mark invaders.

  • lymphocytes produce immune response, from stem cells in bone marrow

  • B cells secrete antibodies

  • T cells attack infected body cells

  • Humoral Immunity provided by B cells, defend mostly vs. bacteria and virus in bodily fluids

  • Cell-mediated Immunity produced by T cells and attack body cells that have been infected
    Responding to Invaders:

  • Antigen enters body

  • binds with b cells (lymphocytes) that have complementary receptors.

  • b cells activated, grow divded into effector cells

  • effector cells create antibodies for specific antigen

  • antibodies circulate in blood and lymph to bind to agents.


Spice Lab I-V

Read Ch 24 with Note Sheet

Disease Video

Study for Test on Friday!!!!!!!!!!!

Next scribe ***Alexis***

Thursday, October 20, 2011

Scribe Post for Thursday, October 20, 2011

Today in Class...
  • finished and went over UP. 33

  • finished bacteria notes

  • recorded data in both bacteria labs (UP. 19-25)

Today's Homework...

  • finish lab analysis (UP. 19-25)

  • read textbook Chapter 24 and finish note sheet

  • work on disease script---due on Halloween

  • work on spice lab (Up.39-42)

UP. 33 Antibiotics

III. Analysis

1. Which of the antibiotics would you use to prevent the growth of B. subtilis?


2. Which of the antibiotics would you use to prevent the growth of E.coli?


3. Are both organisms equally sensitive to each of the antibiotics used? Explain.

No because there are size differences in the zone of inhibitions.

4. Which of the two organisms is more sensitive to antibiotics in general?

B. subtilis.

5. If you wanted to inhibit both organisms with one antibiotic, which one would you use?


6. If E.coli is beneficial and B.subtilis is harmful and you were infected with both, which antibiotic would you choose?


7. In general, what can you conclude about bacteria and antibiotics from this experiment?

Antibiotics are specific at which bacteria they cure the best.

8. What feature does this experiment lack which it should have included?

A control group.

9. How would you correct this mistake?

Add a paper disk with no antibiotic in both petri dishes.

Important Information in the Notes

Power of Antibiotics

  • Zone of Inhibition---area in which the growth of bacteria is prevented or inhibited by an antibiotic or other substance; measurable

Koch's Postulates

  1. The same, specific pathogen must be identified in each host that has the disease.

  2. The pathogen must be isolated from a host and grown in a pure culture, one in which no other kinds of cells are present.

  3. The original disease must be produced in experiment hosts that are inoculated with the pathogen from the pure culture.

  4. The same pathogen must be isolated from the experimental hosts after the disease develops in them.

Bacteria Labs

How Common are Bacteria and How Quickly Do They Reproduce?(UP. 19-22)

observe the agar surface and count the number of colonies

  • without removing the cover

  • white, creamy, or yellow dots

  • white fuzzy colonies are molds

  • each colony represents what was one original cell placed on agar surface

  • record the numbers in the data table an share with your partner

Using Antibiotics to Stop Bacterial Growth (UP. 23-25)

look for zones of inhibitions surrounding the paper disks and measure the diameters in mm

  • do not open the petri dish

  • record the measurements in the data table and share with your partner

Thank you for reading,

see you tomorrow in class!


Next Scribe: ***Melissa***

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Today in class:

- Passed back the Understanding Bacteria worksheet

- Did two labs on pgs. 19-25

- The first one was How Common Are Bacteria and How Quickly Do They Reproduce?

- The second one was Using Antibiotics to Stop Bacterial Growth

- In this experiment we’re using the bacteria Bacillus subtilis.

- Then we took notes on Prokaryotes and bacterial cell and reproduction (pgs. 8-11)


- You can start answering the analysis questions on pg.21 and 25. For some of these questions, you don’t need to know the results of the experiment in order to answer them.

- Read and highlight key points on Unit Packet p.27-29

- Fill in Unit Packet p. 31-32 (use text/internet)- DUE FRIDAY 10/21

-Work on disease project due Monday 10/31

-Work on Spice Lab due by 10/25


- You need a sterile petri dish w/agar, a wax glass marking pencil and tape.

- First divide your petri dish into quarters and mark the outside bottom surface and number the sections 1-4.

- Next, select 3 objects to test for the presence of bacteria. Each object or surface selected is to be touched to its own numbered quarter of agar. Objects can we lightly and directly touched onto the agar and then removed. Surfaces can be tested by rubbing a sterile cotton swab across one of the agar quarters. Use a new swab for each surface tested.

- Cover of the dish should only be partly raised when samples are being applied to the agar.

- Leave one section unexposed, so this will be your control.

- Then record the type of surface or object exposed to each section of the agar.

- Put your name at the bottom and tape the petri dish shut to prevent contamination.

- Place the dish upside down in an incubator at 37 degrees Celsius and wait 24 to 48 hrs until you remove the petri dish.

Side notes

- The agar looks yellowish

- Label sections on agar side

- Number the quadrants in a small font, so you can see the result later on.

2nd LAB

- You need prepared nutrient agar sterile Petri dishes, sterile cotton swabs, tweezers, antibiotic disks- 3 different kinds, wax marking pencil, broth culture of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), sterile paper disk and an incubator.

- Get a sterile Petri dish w/nutrient agar and label the top w/your intials.

- Use a cotton swab dipped in the bacteria broth to cover the entire surface of agar in the Petri dish. (use a back and forth motion to guarantee the entire surface was covered w/ the broth culture

- Divide the dish into four quarters w/ a wax pencil and label them 1-4.

- Add a sterile plain paper disk in the remaining quarter to serve as a control.

- Incubate the dish for 24-48 hrs. at 37 degrees Celsius. If the antibiotics are affective against the bacteria, there will be a clear zone around the disk.

Class Notes


- Evolved and lived all alone on Earth for 2 billion yrs.

- Found where ever there is life and outnumber all eukaryotes combined

- Inhabit soil, skin, and human mouths or habitats that are too cold, too hot, too salty, to acidic, or too alkaline for any eukaryote.

Ex,) black plague, tuberculosis, food poisoning all caused by bacteria

- MOST bacteria are beneficial or benign

6 Kingdom Classification Scheme:


  1. Archea
  2. Bacteria
  3. Protist
  4. Plantae
  5. Fungi Soil Bacteria
  6. Animalia

Prokaryotes lack membrane-enclosed nucleus and numerous other membrane-enclosed organelles.

Two main Branches of Prokaryotes:

1. Archaea (ancient)

- Originate from Earth’s earliest cells

- Most inhabit extreme enviroments Ex.) Thermophiles- heat lovers, Methanogens- give off methane gas and aid in digestion

2. Bacteria

- Causes human diseases

Typical Bacteria Cell

- Absense of nucleus

- Most have cell walls exterior to plasma membrance

- Absense of membrane-enclosed organelles

- About 50% are motile

Shapes of Bacteria: helps to identify prokaryotes

Cocci – spheres Greek for “berries” (sing. Coccus)

Bacilli- rod-shaped (sing. Bacillus)

Spirochete – spiral-shaped (sometimes called spirillum)

Bacterial Reproduction

- Can reproduce at a phenomenal rate if conditions are favorable

- The cells divide by a process called binary fission (copying DNA and then dividing)

- In 24 hrs on cell could create a colony equivalent in mass to 15000 humans.

Bacterial Nourishment: obtaining energy and carbon

Prokaryotic evolution “invented” every type of nutrition we observe in all living organisms, plus some modes unique to prokaryotes.

See you tomorroww! ~ Nazia

Next Scribe: *****HELEN*****

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Scribe Post for Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Today in Class:
-Passed back Understanding Viruses worksheet from the video we watched in class on Monday
-Many people got #11 wrong
-Question: The genetic material inside a virus can be...
-Answer: DNA or RNA
-We watched and did the worksheet for Understanding Bacteria
(UP pg. 17)

Bacteria Notes:
-There are good bacteria and bad bacteria

Good Bacteria
to humans
-Found in....
-Our bodies (skin, intestines, mouth, throat, nose)
-Sour dough bread

-E. coli is a good bacteria found in intestines, which turns food into vitamins.

E. Coli bacteria
Bad Bacteria
-Streptococcus bacteria is an example of one
-causes strep throat and a flesh eating bacteria

-Penicillin (an antibiotic) was discovered on accident by Alexander Fleming
-Antibiotics such as penicillin are created to act against harmful bacteria.
-However, some bacteria can become resistant to medicine by mutating

Streptococcus bacteria photo

I found the video on youtube separated into 5 parts
(Just ignore the subtitles in another language)
Here are the URL's:
Part 1:
Part 2:
Part 3:
Part 4:
Part 5:

-Read UP pgs. 19-25 (Bacteria Labs)
-Interact with the text! Don't just read it! (Highlight, circle,
underline, etc.)
-Pay attention and make sure you understand what you're doing because this lab is the basis for our Spice Lab
-Read textbook pgs. 303-309 and fill out the compare and contrast note sheet
-Viruses side should already be filled out from previous reading, if not, read pgs. 189-195-
Ongoing Homework:
-UP pgs. 31-32 due Friday!
-It's long! Don't save it for Thursday night!
-Work on disease project due Monday 10/31/11
-Work on Spice Lab due by 10/25/11

See you in class,


Monday, October 17, 2011

Scribe Post for Monday, 10/17

Scribe Post for Monday, 10/17

Today in Class:

1- Finished the virus notes (page 6- top of 8)

2- Watched Understanding Bacteria and did UP p. 15


1- Read Ch. 15, p. 303-309 (with note sheet)

2- Read UP p. 19-25-Bacteria Labs

3- Fill in UP p. 31-32 (use text/internet)

Some Important Things in the Notes:

· Animal Viruses

- Their outer envelope is often made of phospholipids membrane and spikes made of protein. These allow the virus to enter and leave the cell by attaching to the cell, not attacking it.

- Some have RNA (HIV, common cold, measles,etc). Others DNA (Chicken pox, etc)

The Reproductive Cycle of an RNA Virus

HIV: The Aids Virus:

- Retrovirus

- Uses reverse transcriptase

Understanding Viruses:

The video reviewed some of the basics of viruses that we have covered in class and gave a visual to help one understand the concepts better. Its main focus was diseases and vaccines.

Don't Forget!

There are two ongoing projects at the moment. The video project as well as the spice lab. Keep working on them!



Next Scribe: **Sophia**