Wednesday, December 7, 2011

Scribe Post Wednsday 12/7/2011

Today In Class We:

  • Turned in Chapter 12 Notes

  • Started Notes On Genetic Engineering


  • UP p. 5-6

  • UP p. 7-10

  • UP p. 13-15

  • Meet in Science Lab Tommorrow

Today we started our notes on Genetic Engineering:

DNA Technology- methods to study and manipulate genetic material


  • corn can produce its own insecticide (prevents insects from eating it)

  • bacteria can clean up pollution

  • DNA fingerprinting to solve crimes (remember not fingerprints on a mirror rather your DNA code)

  • advances towards curing fatal genetic diseases by getting missing enzyme
Your DNA code can be found in:

  • hair

  • blood

  • skin cells

  • bone marrow

  • semen

Human Genome Project:


  • sequence all DNA in human genome

  • to identify location and function of every gene

This project has now been completed.

4 Ways DNA Technology Can Be Used:

  • Use of recombinant (recombined genetic material) to produce useful products

  • Use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic science (anything cellular)

  • Comparison of genomes (big part of eveloution)

  • Use of human gene therapy for treatment of diseases (missing protein-given gene-incorperated in DNA and body can produce it- disease cured)

Background Info... 3 Ways to Transfer DNA!

  • Transformation- the taking up of DNA from the fluid of a surrounding cell

  • Transduction- the transfer of bacterial genes by a phage. The phage has a fragment of DNA from its previous host cell (stowaway). Now its injected in to the new host.

  • Conjugation- a "male" bacterial cell attatches to a "female" cell by sex pili, a bridge forms, and DNA passes from the male to female.

  • once DNA gets into a bacterial cell, by whatever method, it can integrate into recipient's chromosome, replacing part of the original DNA

Recombinant DNA Technology- lab techniques for combining genes from different sources and species into a single DNA molecule

  • biotechnology- the use of organisms to perform practical tasks

  • genetically modified (GM) organism- any organism that carries recombanant DNA

  • transgenic organism- host that carries DNA from different species

  • Genentech Biotech Co. knew amino acid sequence of the human insulin protein. Put the DNA sequence together, inserted them into E. Coli cells (bacterial cells), bacteria cranked out large quantities of insulin.

More Examples of Biotechnology

  • Human Growth Horomone- used to come from human cadavers. Now grown in transgenic bacteria

  • Erythropoitein (EPO)- mammalian cells grow this protein, a treatment for anemia

  • corn- resists attack from parasite

  • strawberries- bacterial proteins act as natural antifreeze

  • potatoes- provide colera immunity

  • transgenic sheep- carry human gene in milk, used for treatment of Cysitic Fibrosis

  • No transgenic animals used in this water supply yet

Recombinant DNA Techniques- use bacterial plasmids (small and readily taken up by bacterial cells. Act as vectors, carriers that move genes from one another. Replicates any foreign DNA that has been inserted.

Remember: Always think of ethical and safety concerns!!

That's All!! Thank you!!


Next Scribe: Charles

Tuesday, December 6, 2011

Scribe Post: Tuesday, December 6

Welcome to the start of the new unit!
Today in class we:
-received the new U.P./Notes/Schedule
-looked over objectives
-survey on page three in new U.P.
-watched "Footpath Murder" video
-Read chapter 12 and 11, 200 & 208-211
-U.P. 5-6
Today, we began unit 5: "DESIGNER GENES".
-it is suggested that if you do not understand the terms in the objectives that you go back in the reading and take notes.
-Note taking for this unit is required.
#10: Should genetic research be used to develop weapons for purposes of war? -students said:
a) no
1)would be the "scariest" weaponry yet because it could specifically attack people
#5: Should genetic examinations of couples before marriage be required by law in order to prevent the birth of children with certain diseases?
-students said:
a) yes
1) should not be used to prevent the birth of children but rather parents would be able to better prepare for their child
b) no
1) violates our rights
Video: The Footpath Murders
-1st DNA fingerprinting case
above left: Lynda Mann. above right: Dawn Ashworth
-both 15 year old girls were sexually assaulted and killed by Colin Pitchfork
-using DNA fingerprinting, scientist Alec Jeffreys helped prove Pitchfork of murder and also saved Richard Buckland (falsely presumed guilty of raping and murdering the two above girls) of being convicted for a crime he did not do
directly below : Alec Jeffreys. below Jeffreys: Colin Pitchfork
Alec Jeffreys, British geneticist UK first ... Colin Pitchfork
That's all guys! thank you :)
-Cici Coleman
next scribe ***BRIANNA

Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Scribe Post 11/30/11

Today In Class....
  1. DNA-mRNA-tRNA worksheet
  2. Picked up a Content Quiz
  3. Answered questions
  4. Watched a few videos on transcription and translation
  5. Did the in class activity: DNA models

  • 99-110 in UP
  • Extra Credit: Lab 37 (should you choose to do it!)

1.DNA-mRNA-tRNA worksheet
  • Practice on sequencing DNA to amino acids
  • If absent, it can be picked up in the classroom
2. Content Quiz
  • Practice for the test
  • If absent, can be picked up in the classroom
3. Answered Questions
  • If you began the homework and had any questions, you could ask them then
  • If you are doing the homework now and still have questions, make sure to keep them somewhere to ask in class tomorrow!**
4. Watched a few videos...
5. In Class Activity: DNA models.
  • Created a DNA model using plastic tubes and connecters resembling the pieces of DNA
    • This is an example of what it looked like.
  • Then we went on to replicate protein synthesis.
  • This lasted until the end of the period.

    Tuesday, November 29, 2011

    Scribe Post for Tuesday, 11/29

    Today in Class:
    -Finished DNA Notes (Page 10 – 19)

    -UP p. 99-110 (including UP p. 108A-B) due Thursday
    -EC- Lab #37 due Thursday

    Some Important Things in the Notes:
    •RNA v. DNA
    - RNA has
    1. Ribose Sugar
    2. 1 Strand
    3. Uracil instead of Thymine
    4. Smaller size than DNA- can go inside/outside nucleus
    5. 3 types: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

    •Transcription- A molecule of DNA is copied into a complementary strand of mRNA

    Steps of Transcription:
    1 .)    Initiation
    2 .)    RNA Elongation
    3 .)    Termination

    A little animated video of Transcription:

    •Processing RNA
    -       - In Eukaryotes, to process RNA need extra nucleotides or cap and tail to protect the RNA and help the ribosomes recognize it as mRNA
    -     -   Introns-noncoding regions (Removed before the RNA leaves the nucleus)
    -    -  Exons-coding regions

    •Translation-Translating the mRNA code into tRNA with the corresponding AA’s; Takes place in ribosome

    Steps of Translation:
    1 .)    Initiation
    2 .)    Elongation
    3 .)    Termination

    Another animated video on Translation:

    Codons-consist of three bases; used in the translating of mRNA

    Above is a chart for all the triplet codons
    61 codons for Amino acids
    AUG=met and start
    3 are stop codons (No amino acids)

     And I think that’s all!
    Don't forget the test is on Monday!
    NEXT SCRIBE: **Olivia**