Wednesday, December 7, 2011

Scribe Post Wednsday 12/7/2011

Today In Class We:

  • Turned in Chapter 12 Notes

  • Started Notes On Genetic Engineering


  • UP p. 5-6

  • UP p. 7-10

  • UP p. 13-15

  • Meet in Science Lab Tommorrow

Today we started our notes on Genetic Engineering:

DNA Technology- methods to study and manipulate genetic material


  • corn can produce its own insecticide (prevents insects from eating it)

  • bacteria can clean up pollution

  • DNA fingerprinting to solve crimes (remember not fingerprints on a mirror rather your DNA code)

  • advances towards curing fatal genetic diseases by getting missing enzyme
Your DNA code can be found in:

  • hair

  • blood

  • skin cells

  • bone marrow

  • semen

Human Genome Project:


  • sequence all DNA in human genome

  • to identify location and function of every gene

This project has now been completed.

4 Ways DNA Technology Can Be Used:

  • Use of recombinant (recombined genetic material) to produce useful products

  • Use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic science (anything cellular)

  • Comparison of genomes (big part of eveloution)

  • Use of human gene therapy for treatment of diseases (missing protein-given gene-incorperated in DNA and body can produce it- disease cured)

Background Info... 3 Ways to Transfer DNA!

  • Transformation- the taking up of DNA from the fluid of a surrounding cell

  • Transduction- the transfer of bacterial genes by a phage. The phage has a fragment of DNA from its previous host cell (stowaway). Now its injected in to the new host.

  • Conjugation- a "male" bacterial cell attatches to a "female" cell by sex pili, a bridge forms, and DNA passes from the male to female.

  • once DNA gets into a bacterial cell, by whatever method, it can integrate into recipient's chromosome, replacing part of the original DNA

Recombinant DNA Technology- lab techniques for combining genes from different sources and species into a single DNA molecule

  • biotechnology- the use of organisms to perform practical tasks

  • genetically modified (GM) organism- any organism that carries recombanant DNA

  • transgenic organism- host that carries DNA from different species

  • Genentech Biotech Co. knew amino acid sequence of the human insulin protein. Put the DNA sequence together, inserted them into E. Coli cells (bacterial cells), bacteria cranked out large quantities of insulin.

More Examples of Biotechnology

  • Human Growth Horomone- used to come from human cadavers. Now grown in transgenic bacteria

  • Erythropoitein (EPO)- mammalian cells grow this protein, a treatment for anemia

  • corn- resists attack from parasite

  • strawberries- bacterial proteins act as natural antifreeze

  • potatoes- provide colera immunity

  • transgenic sheep- carry human gene in milk, used for treatment of Cysitic Fibrosis

  • No transgenic animals used in this water supply yet

Recombinant DNA Techniques- use bacterial plasmids (small and readily taken up by bacterial cells. Act as vectors, carriers that move genes from one another. Replicates any foreign DNA that has been inserted.

Remember: Always think of ethical and safety concerns!!

That's All!! Thank you!!


Next Scribe: Charles


  1. This was very informative Brianna, I was using this to study for the test tomorrow and is a great reminder on certain things as well as refresh my memory on how. Thank you, and if there is one thing that could be added may be a picture for each of the steps for the background info since that is not in the book. Other than that it was fine and I enjoyed reading this post.

  2. This was a very good post overall.. It was helpful when i was looking for information to study with. THough the information was on-point, it would have been nice to have seem more pictures other that labels (ex. HG project). There were also large spaces between some words and sentences (I dont know if it was a formatting error.)
    Great Job.
    Siddharth Rajan