Ms. Andrews stamped UP 31-32, we corrected it in class.
Watched 5 min Germ Theory Video
Disease Agent How Spread
- Common Cold : Many viruses
- Influenza: Virus
- Malaria: Parasite (Plasmodium)
- Typhus: Bacteria (Ricksettia) spread by ticks fleas mites and body lice.
- Tuberculosis: Bacteria
- Whooping Cough: Bacteria
- Poliomyelitis: Virus
- Rabies: Virus Bite from infected mammal
- Infectious Mononucleosis: Virus
- Mumps: Virus
- Pneumonia: Bacteria, Fungi, Virus
- Meningitis: Bacteria, Virus
- Ringworm: Fungus touching the fungi, contact with a person with ringworm or something the person has touched
- Tetanus: Bacterium
- Chicken Pox: Virus
- AIDS: Virus
- Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Bacteria (Rickettsia)
- Amoebic Dysentery: Protozoan (Amoeba)
- Streptococcal Soar Throat: Bacterium
- German Measles: Virus
- Botulism: Bacteria
- Athletes Foot: Fungus
- Measles: Virus
Germ Theory Video
Before the late 1800s, doctors didn't see a need to wash hands because they didn't know about germs. This caused the death of many patients.
lost 3 out of his 5 kids to typhoid fever- inspired him to figure out the cause
he had a beer and wine industry- wanted to figure out what made his products spoil
discovered contamination of germs
he boiled the wine and sourness went away-"Pasteurization method"
this led to discovery of Germ Theory: One Microorganism causes one disease in everybody.
Cells are specific-specific protiens- (have name tags). Body atacks cells that have different name tags
First Line of Defense:Not Specific
- External barriers: physical barriers and chemical agents that prevent foreign invaders from getting deep inside
- Mucous Membranes- hair and mucus in nostrils
- Secretions of Skin and Membrane-sweat saliva tears contain lysozymes that disrupt bacteria cell wall.
-Also the saltiness of the sweat saliva and tears=hypertonic solution that causes the bacteria cell to lyse.
Second Line of Defense: Not Specific
- Internal- invader penetrates inside external barriers
- Phagocytic white blood cells called leukocytes prduced in bone marrow.
- Neutrophils- phagocytic WBCs that engulf bacteria and viruses in infected tissue
- macrophages- large amoeboid WBCs
- Natural killer/cytotoxic cells- attack virus infected body cells, causing them to burst.
- Defensive proteins
- Complement proteins- proteins in blood that can flag the microbe surface for easier identification by macrophages, cut holes in microbial membranes to cause death, and speed up inflammatory response, cause invading cells to lyse.
- Interferons- interfere with microbes. proteins made by virus infected cells (interferons) bind to nearby healthy cells the help the infected cell. The healthy cells produces proteins that inhibit viral replication .
- Inflammatory Response when tissue is damaged, body's response.
Bacteria releases exotoxins that the phagocytes sense.
Phagocytes move into infected area with fluid, causes swelling. Phagocytes, macrophages, neutrophils engulf bacteria and cell debris, tisue heals.
Histamines- chemical causing blood vessels to dilate and leak fluid into tissue making it swell (swelling helps dilute toxins from bacteria, bring O2, promotes scabbing)
Prostaglandins- chemical increases blood flow to wond causing redness, warmth, sends pain signal to brain.
Pyrons are chemicals (fire makers) that travel to hypothalamus in brain causing fever. This is bad when enzymes denature.
Lymphatic System (falls in between)
- returns tissue fluid to circulatory system
- fights infection
- has network vessels
- lymph noodles
- bone marrow
- spleen, tonsils, thymus
- main battle ground when fighting infection
- swollen glands is when lymph nodes fill with lyphocytes
- where WBCs stored
Third Line of Defense: Specific
- when nonspecific defenses fail
- recognizes and attacks inading microbes like bacteria, cancer cells, prtozoa, pollen, parasitic worms, house dust, mold spores, cells of tranplanted tisssue
- antigen- molecules on surface of virus or foriegn cells, and there is one antigen for every bacteria or virus you've ever encountered
- antibodies are defensive proteins produced by the immune system when it detects antigens in blood plasma and are specific to one antigen and counter its effects, molecular defense, mark invaders.
- lymphocytes produce immune response, from stem cells in bone marrow
- B cells secrete antibodies
- T cells attack infected body cells
- Humoral Immunity provided by B cells, defend mostly vs. bacteria and virus in bodily fluids
- Cell-mediated Immunity produced by T cells and attack body cells that have been infected
Responding to Invaders:
- Antigen enters body
- binds with b cells (lymphocytes) that have complementary receptors.
- b cells activated, grow divded into effector cells
- effector cells create antibodies for specific antigen
- antibodies circulate in blood and lymph to bind to agents.
Spice Lab I-V
Read Ch 24 with Note Sheet
Study for Test on Friday!!!!!!!!!!!
Next scribe ***Alexis***