Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Scribe Post 2/29/11

Today in Class we...
  1. Handed in the crustacean lab
  2. Finished up the note packet
  3. Did and handed in classification lab

  • Notes
-7 classes of Chordates (vertebrates)

-Lack jaws (jawless)
-Use their jawless mouths to stick to the sides
of other fish
-(pictured right-------->)
-2 chambered heart, ectothermic (cold blooded)
-Ex: shark, rays, skates
-Made of cartilage**
-amazing sense of smell
-2 chambered heart, ectothermic
-Bony fishes
-Stiff skeleton with calcium salts
-Buoyant (because of an air filled sack called a swim bladder)
-Do not need to swim to filter water through gills**
-2 chambered heart, ectothermic
-Ex: Frog, newt, toad, salamander
-Breathe through skin (require moist skin)
-Double life cycle featuring a metamorphisis --->
-First vertebrates to colonize land
-3 chambered heart, ectothermic
-Ex: Snake, lizard, alligators
-Have scales, claws
-Lay amniotic eggs
-3 chambered heart, ectothermic
(require less than 10% of a mammal their size
-Ex: Bird
-Lay amniotic eggs, have scales
-Adapted to flying
-Honeycombed bones
-1 ovary vs. 2
-no teeth
-Only 2 flightless species
-4 chambered heart, endothermic (warm blooded)
-Ex: Humans, Bears, Mouse
-Mainly terrestrial
-Hair and Mammary (milk producing) gland
-4 Chambered heart, endothermic
  • Classification Lab:
-Pertained to the 7 classes from the notes
-We observed different jarred/dead animals and had to classify them according to the key on the first page of the lab
-there were 21 animals of varying classes
-We turned them in at the end of class!

  • do UP page 73
Next scribe: Mark

Tuesday, February 28, 2012

Scribe Post 2/28/12

Today in Class...
-Turned in Starfish Lab
-Did Arthropod Lab (UP. 59-62)
-Did Phylum Chordata Notes (p.24-25)
-Watched Life in the Undergrowth (Last 5 minutes of class)

Arthropod Lab
In this lab we were trying to distinguish differnces between the three classes, Class Insecta, Class Crustacea, and Class Arachinda, of Phylum Arthropada. The three organisms we compared were a crayfish, a grasshopper, and a spider.
Crayfish Diagram (side view)-

Grasshopper Diagram (side view)-

Spider Diagram (side view)-

Even though these organisms share many similarities, they also have distinct differences due to the fact that they are in different classes. Here are a few differences between the organisms-
-number of leg pairs:
grasshopper: 3 pairs
crayfish: 4 pairs
spider: 4 pairs
-number of body regions:
grasshopper: 3
crayfish: 2
spider: 2
-antennae present:
grasshopper: yes
crayfish: yes
spider: no
-wings present:
grasshopper: yes
spider: no

Phylum Chordata Traits:
-pharyngeal slits
-post-anal tail

Vertebrates-chordates which have a backbone

Class Agnatha
-Jawless Fish
-2 chambered heart
-ectothermic or exothermic

Class Chonrichthyes
-Cartilaginous Fishes-Sharks, Skates, and Rays
-have flexible skeleton made of cartilage
-2 chambered heart
-ectothermic or exothermic

The video showed various types of centipedes, some as long as 13 inches, and the ways they optained their prey.
If you missed it, here's a segment of it-

-finish UP. 59-62
-Up. 73 due Thursday
-Study... Quiz..
-Nature due Friday

Next Scribe: Olivia

Monday, February 27, 2012

Scribe Post 2/27/12

Today in Class...
-Turned in the isopod lab
-Starfish dissecting lab- UP 63-66
-Watched a video about invertebrates
Starfish Lab
Starfish are a part of the Echinodermata Phylum
-echin means prickly
-derma means skin
Starfish feel prickly and squishy
Parts of Starfish- what we looked for
Dorsal View
Central disc- center of starfish
Rays- "arms" usually five
Madreoporic plate- small yellow or red structure on central disc
Spines- hard, covers everything, part of exoskeleton
Aye spot- tip of each arm
Anus- opening in center of central disk
Ventral View
Mouth- center of central disk, surrounded with spines
Ambulacral groove- groove along center of rays
Tube feet- at tips of ambulacral groove, help with movement
After snipping of the tip of one ray, there is a gland called the pyloric cecum - part of digestive system
There are 5 in a starfish
Starfish have separate sexes,
testes are gray, ovaries are orange- but it is hard to tell in preserved starfish
There are 5 paris of gonads in a starfish
They have 2 stomachs
The mouth is on the ventral side- above stomach
The anus is on the dorsal side-under stomach
Water vascular system- Madreoporic plate and anything connected to it
Tube feet- suction cups, help starfish move and hold prey
Ampullae- connected to a tube foot, pink and bulblike
5 Radial Canals- inside ambbulacral groove, long hollow tube that is connected to all other radial canals through ring canal
1 circular canal
Human Ciculatory system is like the Starfish's Vascular sytem because they both have "canals"(blood vessels) that transport things
Invertebrates can live without vertebrates, but vertebrates can't live without invertebrates.
Most animals are invertebrates.
Not the same video but its a good review about invertebrates:
Finish UP 63-66
Up 75-76
Nature due this Friday
Next Scribe:

Sunday, February 26, 2012

Scribe Post 2/24/12

Today In Class We:
-Did our isopod lab

-Finish UP 51-54 (type up sections and questions)

-UP 55-57 (make sure you color!)

-Prelab UP 59-66

-Nature Due 3/2-Don't wait until the last minute!

For the isopod lab you needed to do background information so make sure you include that in your typed up lab. Isopods belong to the kingdom Animalia and the Phlyum arthropoda with the sub phylum crustacea. Other organisms in this phylum are krill, lobsters, and crabs.

Don't forget to include your hypothesis and purpose!

My group for the lab experimented with the moisture of the environment for the isopod. Other groups may have chosen different things. here is a video with other types of experiments. The music is also REALLY good.

During the experiment we did 3 different trials with 10 pill bugs. Everyone should have had multiple trials along with multiple test subjects. Our experiment contained 3 different chambers. One with half a pipette full of water, one with a full pipette of water, and one dry chamber. The pill bugs seemed to like the half-pipette area most.

You should have found an environment that Pill bugs like more based on your testing.

Hope this sums up everything!


Next Scribe: Melissa

Thursday, February 23, 2012

Biology Honors


  • Finish Earthworm Lab
  • Make isopod lab
  • Nature Article
What we did in class
  • Earthworm Lab
  • Isopod Lab Design
In the earthworm lab, we got an earthworm, placed it on a piece of wet paper towel and observed many things.
We observed the:
  • Anterior End
  • Posterior End
  • Dorsal side
  • Ventral Side
  • The way it moved
Next we measured the legnth, in centimeters, and the number of segments
The results of each group(length(cm), # of segments):
  1. 20.5, 175
  2. 18, 150
  3. 17, 152
  4. 16, 164
  5. 21, 188
Then we looked and felt the clitellum, setae, and seminal receptacles. We then predicted if it sensed light, odor, sound, taste and touch. We did a test to see if they responded to wetness/ dryness and the worm seemed to sense both. A test with ammonia to see if it can smell, and it was able to. Finally we did our own experiment to see if it sensed light.

Tomorrow you are suppose to have a detailed design for the isopod lab.

Hope this post helps out.
Next post is ***Melissa

Michael D

Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Scribe Post: 2/22/2012

Today in Class...
-Stamp UP page 37
-Collect UP pages 35 & 36
-Notes: Animals Obj # 11-13
-Study Animal Notes
-Nature article due 3/2
-Isopod Research??
-Earthworm lab due TOMORROW
Material covered in class today:
We mostly covered notes, so the following includes key points and more images for better comprehension
Animal Phylogeny:
-This is one hypothesis about the evolutionary relationships among the following animals
Body Symmetry:
a) radial symmetry: animals may be cut in any direction to produce two equal parts
b) bilateral symmetry: animals can only produce two equal halves by a single longitudinal cut
Body Cavities: a fluid filled space separating the digestive tract from outer body wall
Acoelmate: lacking a body cavity. ex flatworms
Pseudomate: Possesses a body cavity partially lined by mesoderm (middle layer of tissue) ex. Roundworms
Coelemate: Possesses a body cavity completely lined by mesoderm. ex. earthworms
Phylum Porifera
-sessile (attatched to something else)
-probably evolved from protists
-no nerves or muscles
Phylum Nematoda:
-Complete digestive tract
Phylum Annelida: segmented worms
Polychaetes and Leeches:
-segmented appendages and hard bristles
Phylum Mollusca:
-snails, slugs, clams, octopuses, & squid
-soft bodied animals
-3 major classes of mollusks: gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods
Phlyum Arthropoda
-Crustaceans, Millipedes, Centipedes, and Insects
-segmented animals
-sensory reception
Phylum Echinodermis:
-Seastar, Sand dollar, Sea Cucumber
-Spiny skin
-Larvae form: bilateral symmetry
-Adult form: radial symmetry
Thank you! Hope this is helpful
Next scribe *** michael d

Saturday, February 18, 2012

Blog Post: 2/18/2012

Today we turned in....
Our 2 UP pages of choice (15, 17-18, 19, 0r 21-26)
Work on Nature Magazine (due 3/2)
research "Rolley Polly" bugs (p.51-54)
Finish p.39-40
Finish p.41-43
read Ch 17
What we did in class:
The only thing we did in class today was the "Live Hydra Lab" (p.39-40)
and the "Flatworms-Observation of a Live Planarian Lab" (p41-43, except we didnt do page 43)
Hydra lab:
(note... if you need to look up a picture of the hydra in water, please use the photo on the right)
Notes about the lab:
1. Do not forget to do the prelab on p39! (many people did)
2. dont not forget to fill in the diagram on p.39
3. When filling in lab analysis question number 2, note that note everybody's hydra had the same amount of tentacles.
4.Under 'Hydra Behavior", question 3, hydras only move their tentacles.
5.On Question 4, note that we did not use a toothpick, we used the pipet. The hydra's reaction was it attached to it, and once it fell it balled up.
6. For question 5 not that hydras sting their prey to kill it then eat it. Also, we used a living daphnia, not fish food.
Flatworm lab (p41-43 (w/o p. 43)):
Note: For question 1 and 4 use the following picture.
2. For question 5 note we did not do a class average. I dont think you would be able to find flatworm and measure it, so maybe look up their average length on line.
3.For question 6 note that the flatworms were constantly moving. Also note that the worms creep on the edges of the dish. Also, for the last part, note that the current had no effetc on what the worm was doing.
4.You can use this video for help with questions 6 and 7
5.For question 8 and 9 just use a search engine to figure out the answers.
NEXT SCRIBE: ***Cici***

Thursday, February 16, 2012

Scribe Post: Thursday 2/16

Today in class we did a protist lab!

1. finish UP p. 27-31
2. Read CH 15 - protists
3. Read and prep for UP p. 39-40 & 41-43 labs
4. Nature due 3/2

Background Info on Protists:
-one-celled organisms
-found in a variety of habitats
-some are autotrophic (need light for photo synthesis)
-some are heterotrophic (depend on autotrophs for food)
*Psuedopods use small extensions in their cytoplasm called pseudopodia to move, similar to feet*
*Flagellates have a tail to move
backward and forward*
*Ciliates have more precise
movement by using ciliates*


1. Obtain a prepared or ready-slide of Amoeba Paramecium, or Euglena.
***For our lab, we also looked at slides of Stentor, Algae, and Volvox.
2. Use low power to locate the protists, and to observe their movement.
3. Use high power to clearly observe a single organism. Experiment with different settings of the diaphragm to enhance various aspects of the organism.
4. As you observe the protists fill in the general shape, overall color, and structure used for movement in the data table.
5. Be sure to observe all 3 protist organisms.
6. Clean-up your work area and wash your hands before leaving the lab

We analyzed the following characteristics of Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, Stentor, Algae, and Volvox:

-General Shape
-Overall Color
-Structure for Movement
-How do they obtain food?
-Detailed sketch!!

Amoeba: Paramecium: Euglena:

Stentor: Algae: Volvox:

****Next scribe: Jeremy****

Wednesday, February 15, 2012

Scribe Post, 2/15

In Class We...
  • Got pages 7-10 in the UP stamped
  • Reviewed and turned in pages 11-14 from the UP
  • Discussed the pill bug lab
  • Took notes
  • Did lab #44
  • Read chapter 16 if you haven't (you should be done)
  • Complete lab 44- DUE tomorrow
  • Complete two of the following activities in your UP: 15, 17-18, 19, 21-26- DUE 2/17
  • Continue working on Nature magazine cover- DUE 3/2
The Pill Bug Lab...
  • Turn to page 51 in your unit packet to the page titled "Observation of a Living Isopod"
  • As explained on this page, we will be creating a tray with two or four connecting chambers, containing separate environments, and we must observe how the pill bugs (rolly pollys) react to these environments.
  • Our homework for this lab is to research pill bugs and prepare lab ideas by 2/22 (next Wednesday) where we will be assigned groups to set up the lab with.
In the Notes...

As a warning, we skipped a few pages and began taking notes on page 11, about fungi.
  • Fungi is an organism that rots woods, spoils foods, and infects human skin (this is why we should wear flip flops in the shower!)
  • Organic materials, such as dead animals, are decomposed by fungi. Going back to the first unit, ecology, fungi are the decomposers in most environments.
  • Something KEY to remember: Fungi are eukaryotes, and heterotrophs, and TYPICALLY multicellular
  • People used to classify fungi as plants, which is why some of us may stumble on a question regarding whether or not fungi are heterotrophic!
  • Fungi digest their foods OUTSIDE their body by secreting enzymes to digest the material before consumption.
  • These enzymes are called hydrolytic enzymes (hydro=water, lytic=breaking). With these they absorb the already decomposed nutrients.
  • Some fungi are parasitic (we all know anything regarding parasitism grosses me out!!!)
  • These parasitic fungi absorb the nutrients from living hosts. Remember from prior units that parasites harm their hosts but DO NOT kill them.
  • This parasitic fungi can also harm humans though, inflicting them with diseases such as athlete's foot and pneumonia (pneumonia can be a result of other pathogenic substances also)
Fungi: Structure and Function:
  • Fungi grow most successfully in moist environments.
  • Constructed of hyphae- small threads made of tubular walls, surrounded by plasma membranes and cytoplasm
  • All of the hyphae come together to form a mycelium- the massive underground feeding system of fungi. An example of the enormity of the mycelium is seen in a fungus in Oregon that measures 3.4 miles in diameter.
  • Another example is when you see multiple mushrooms in your yard, they are all one organism because they are connected through the unseen mycelium.

  • Fungal Reproduction:
    • Fungi reproduce by reducing spores, which are created either sexually OR asexually. (Remember, sexual reproduction creates diversity, while asexual reproduction is an exact copy)
    • Spores, in produced in the trillions, can be carried by the wind or water and, if they land in a suitable, moist environment, they can germinate (grow).
    • Fungus is edible, helps make bread rise, assists in fermenting beer and alcohol, it helps make cheese, and most importantly it is used in the production of some antibiotics (penicillin and sulfa)
    Lab #44...
    This lab was taken from our lab books (pages 261-265), not the UP....
    • The main focus of this activity was to...
    1. Identify the parts of a mushroom (stipe, cap veil, annulus, gills)
    2. Observe basidia and spores of a mushroom
    3. Observe the structure of lichens
    • In this lab, we did not do the microscope questions (skip 8e and 8f from part 1, and 4c in part 2)
    • We began this lab with a common mushroom, and examined whether or not the veil had broken yet. This would determine whether your specimen is mature or not.
    • After this, you must draw your specimen in the space provided.
    • Once done, remove the cap from the stipe and examine the gills within the cap.
    • Tap the head on the ground and observe any material that falls from the gills.
    • After this, continue reading questions 5-7, however you do not need to complete question 8.
    • Once done, you must take a lichen sample from the front desk, and analyze your sample (Don't forget to read the background information on lichens above the problems!)
    • After you complete questions one and two, continue to read, however do not complete the microscope activity. The following questions (1-5) are your homework

    If you have read this far, thanks for your time.
    ANNA !!!

    Tuesday, February 14, 2012

    Scribe Post: 2/14

    Hello my fabulous bio class and visitors,

    Happy Valentines Day! :)

    Today in class we:
    • Discussed our upcoming unit
    • Went over details for the nature magazine cover/article (UP page 5-6A)
    • Classification notes
    • Shark lab (UP Page 11-14)


    • UP page 7-10
    • UP page 11-14 ( Shark lab )


    • Fungus & animal notes
    • Lab # 44
    • GET PUMPED!!

    For you sleepyheads, we are in a new unit! It is called "The diversity of Life"...

    We have an upcoming project due 3/2 not 3/4!!! It is a nature magazine cover and article on your choice of invertebrate. You have to digitally create a cover and and article in collumns with pictures and in-text citations!

    NOTES: Classifying the Diversity of Life

    Some basic definitions you need to know!

    • systematics- reconstructing evolutionary history by studying biological diversity from the past and the present.
    • taxonomy- the identification, naming, and classification of species. They do this because they want to put things in order so animals make sense how we are related.
    • Carolus Linneaus- He lived from 1707 to 1778. He was a physician and a botanist. Themost important thing he did was started a two part name for each species!
    • He named it Binomean nomeclature. This means 2 name-naming system. He used latin in his name because it is the root of all languages.
    • His system has a hierachial classification of species into broader and broader groups of organisms.
    • Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. This could also be known as KPCOFGS. A way to remember that is King pelican comes over for good sprouts.
    • In the past, species of animals where grouped by their physical apperance, which could prove to not be so true.

    The Cladistic Revolution

    • Since we have computer technology and DNA we have a new and better way of classifying species
    • Cladistic anaylasis- scientific search for clades, or branches, which consist of a common ancestor and every descendant that came from it.
    • Phylogeny- the evolutionary history of a group or species
    • Cladistic anylasis is the most widely used method in systematics.
    • Cladistic anaylasis has proved many previous thoughts wrong, for example birds and reptiles are now in the same class.

    Here is an exampe of cladistic analysis chart.

    • They used to use the 5 Kingdom Classification System this is the OLD WAY!!!
    • This was thought of in 1969 by Robert H. Wittaker
    • It was split into 5 kingdoms, animalia, fungi, plantae, protista, and monera.
    • We now have six kingdoms, we split monera.

    Now we have 3 Domains

    This is an alternative to the five kingdom system

    • The 3 domains are bacteria, archaea, and eukarya.
    • Bacteria and archaea are prokaryotes, and eukarya is from eukaryotes.

    Taxonomic Key

    • Always start at the top of the key.
    • Use a taxonomic key!
    • Dichotomomous key- 2 opposing staments at one time

    Thats about all we did for notes, the last couple minutes we worked on our homework and the shark lab!!!

    If you want full notes then check on moodle!!!!

    Have a great night guys,