Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Summary for Sept 27, 2011, and Sept 28, 2011

Hello Class,

There will be no blog post for the single day of September 27, 2011. Instead, I will be making two cumulative posts summarizing the cells lab today, as well as tomorrows activities. You can check the blog tomorrow (the 28th) for a full summary of Tuesday and Wednesday’s lesson.

Thanks for Reading

Siddharth

PS: the nest scribe will be posted tomorrow as well.


next - michael

Monday, September 26, 2011

9/26 Scribe Post

Today In class:


-Turned in the Cells Alive Internet Lesson (UP 19-22) and the Enzyme Coloring Sheet EC.


-Reviewed the information on the UP pages 7-11 about enzymes
The greater the concentration of enzyme and/or substrate, the greater the reaction rate will be
Enzymes function at an optimal pH level.
Enzymes function at an optimal temperature.


In every reaction process:


  • Reactants are what go in


  • Enzymes change the reactants

  • The substrate is the reactant being changed.


  • Products are what come out.

For example:

H202 (Hydrogen Peroxide) ----; Catalase (Enzyme)-----; H20+02 (Water and Oxygen)


reactant is the hydrogen peroxide

substrate is the hydrogen peroxide

enzyme is catalase

products of the reaction are water and oxygen


We did the ENZYME LAB!!! (UP pages 12-15)



In a groups of 4, we tested:

Part I- enzyme (catalase) specificity,

Part II- effect of temperature on enzyme activity with :fridge(0 degrees Celsius), incubator(40 degress Celsius), and boiling water (100 degrees Celsius)

Part III- effect of concentration of enzyme,

Part IV- effect of pH on enzyme.


Remember to set up the test tubes in the fridge, incubator, and boiling water before hand so you can do other work while.

Recognize trends and patterns of how enzymes react differently in different situations.

Work efficiently and its really helpful to SPLIT WORK BETWEEN GROUP and collect the data at the end.

Homework:
Finsh entired Enzyme Lab UP 11-18 DUE FRIDAY
READ CH 4 CELLS
Complete Cell pre-lab UP 23-26


Next Scribe: **Siddharth**






Sunday, September 25, 2011

9/25/11 - Scribe Post

Today in class we:
  • Finished the last few slides of section 1 in the notes packet
  • Got through all of the 'PROTEINS=ENZYMES' section of notes
HIGHLIGHTS OF THE NOTES

The Basics of Organic Chemistry

STEROIDS
  • Have big effects on teens because this is the stage when gender traits develop
  • Gender mix-ups can occur when teens use steroids
  • Basically, steroids can cause a lot of medical issues for users
PROTEINS
  • Four different structures of proteins
  • Primary Structure- the specific sequence of amino acids, if the primary structure is messed up then the protein won't function properly
  • Secondary Structure- can either be an Alpha Helix or Pleated Sheet, it is held together by hydrogen bonds
  • Tertiary Structure- 3D shape, held together by chemical bonds between side groups
  • Quaternary Structure- consists of two or more bonded polypeptide chains
NUCLEIC ACIDS
  • Blueprints for making proteins
  • Two main types: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA)
PROTEINS = ENZYMES

PROTEINS
  • Protein=polymer made out of amino acid monomers
AMINO ACID
  • Amino acid=the monomers that make up proteins
  • Consist of: 1 central Carbon atom, Carboxyl group, Amino group, Hydrogen atom, side group
  • Each of the 20 different types of amino acids will have a different side group which gives it unique characteristics
FORMING POLYMERS
  • dehydration synthesis bonds amino acids together
WHAT IS AN ENZYME?
  • A specialized protein that speeds up a reaction
  • CATALYST: speed up rate of chemical reaction without being used up itself
HOW TO SPEED UP A CHEMICAL REACTION
  • Heat the mixture
  • Decrease activation energy with an enzyme
ALL ENZYMES ARE AFFECTED BY.....
  • Temperature: optimal temperature: temperature at which the enzyme is best able to function.
  • Cell can become denatured (unable to function) if it is at a temperature to far away from its optimal temperature
  • pH: optimal pH: pH at which the enzyme is best able to function
  • Concentration
  • Specificity
PH SCALE
  • pH: potential hydrogen
ION
  • A charged particle that has gained or lost an elctron
ACIDS
  • Will add H+ to solutions
BASES
  • Will remove H+ ions from solutions. Sometimes done by adding OH-
NEUTRAL
  • A solution where the number of H= and OH- ions are equal
SUBSTRATE AND ACTIVE SITE
  • Substrate=the specific molecule an enzyme will bond to
  • Active site=the place on an enzyme where the substrate will bond, must be an exact fit
ENZYME INHIBITION
  • Active site can be blocked by substrate imitations so that the real substrate is unable to react
  • Inhibitor changes size of active site by binding to another site on the enzyme (reversible)
HOMEWORK
1. Pre-lab UP p. 7-18 - Enzyme Lab 2. EC - enzyme coloring sheet (color code and highlight) 3. UP p. 19-22 due 9/26
BE SURE YOUR READY FOR THE LAB!

Next Scribe: ****Melissa****

Thursday, September 22, 2011

9/22/11 Scribe Post


It's been a busy week! We had our global warming discussion, Unit 1 test, science survey test, and Biology Day where wewatched "Planet Earth".
Today in class: we s
tarted Unit 2: Cells!

IMPORTANT THINGS FROM YOUR NOTES--The Basics of Organic Chemistry

Definitions:
-Macromolecules=biological
-Polymer=many monomers

-Dehydration Synthesis=lin
king of monomers to form polymer
-Hydrolysis=broken down with water
-Monomer=chemical subunit that serves as a building block for polymers (the legos of organic chemistry!)

****For this unit, it is a good idea to learn how to break words apart (ex: hydro=water, lysis=breaking down)

Notes:
-Every bond=2 electrons
-Carbon has 4 bonds and the ability to arrange into long skeletons
-Functional Groups are reactive and atta
ched to carbon skeletons/involved in chemical reaction
-Molecule can have 1 functional group attached or more than one
-Molecules created by bonding monomers to
gether
-Polymers broken down into monomers
-Monosaccharide (simple sugars) formula is: C6H12O6
-Disaccharides formed by dehydration synthesis of monosaccarides
-Disaccharide formula: C12H22O11
-Polysaccharides: starch, glycogen, cellulose
-Carbohydrates are hydrophilic (water-loving)
-Lipids:Fats (triglyceride)
-Lipids are hydrophobic (water fearing). This means they don't mix with water, not that they are afraid of it!


We also briefly talked about steroids.
-Steroids are classified as lipids because they are hydrophobic.
-Anabolic Steriods=variation of testosterone
-Steroids can cause many problems, a major
problem being confusion of hormones that are necessary during development.

HW:
Ch. 2 p.28-32
Ch. 3 p.36-50
Ch. 5 p.78-79

See you all tomorrow!
Anna

Next scribe: ***Eleni***

Wednesday, September 14, 2011

6/14/11 Scribe Post


Today in class we:
-Finished taking notes in the Unit 1: Scientific Method Packet
-Did the activity on pages 73-75

In the notes:

TOPIC: Global Warming

-caused by an increase in the atmospheres CO2 levels

-largely due to the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation

-if the global temperature rises by 2 degrees C, then polar ice caos could melt causing sea levels to rise, flooding cities on the shore, and change in rainfall patterns, effecting farming
TOPIC: Ozone Layer Depletion
-caused by the use of chlorofluorocarbons (chemicals used for refridgeration and aerosals)
-Why is this bad?
1). increases amount of skin cancer
2). increases amount of cateracts
3). damages crops
4). increases phytoplakton (plankton that gains energy from the sun)
-in 1987 many nations ended CFC production which wasn't officially followed until 2010
-there's an ozone hole over Antartica that occasionally moves over area of Australia, New Zealand, and South America
-because of this, Australia has the largest skin cancer rate in the world
TOPIC: Biodiversity Crisis
-a decline in Earth's variety of life
-we are losing species: birds, plants, trees, freshwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals
WHAT CAUSES ALL OF THIS?
1). Habitat destruction- land, wetland, and marine
2). Introduced species-eliminate native species. Ex: Asian Carp outcompeting other freshwater fish in the Illinois rivers
3). Overexploitation- excessive commercial harvest or sport hunting. Ex: whales, dolphins, sea turtles, elephants
TOPIC: Why does biodiversity matter?
-We depend on species for food, shelter, clothing, shelter, oxygen, and soil
-25% of prescription medicines come from plants. Ex: Aloe is used to treat burns and dry skin
-Human populations could be altered by changes in biodiversity
-Field of Conservation Biology: seeks to counter the loss of biodiversity
-Doal: Sustainable developement balancing human needs with the health of the biosphere. Goal is prosperityof human societies and ecosystems that support them
In the activity:
Pages 73- 75
"Environmental Action Simulation"
In this activity we were all paired in groups of 4-5 people. We were to pretend we were part of the Granite City Environmental Action Organization. We were then given a $20,000 grant in which we were supposed to divide amongst several organizations in need of funding. We then wrote paragraphs explaining why we chose to divide the funds this way.
Homework:
-read the articles given by Mrs. Andrews
-answer the questions on the article
Next Scribe: ***Anna***

Tuesday, September 13, 2011

Scribe Post- 9/13/2011



Today in class we: -Turned in Biome maps
- Went over UP pages 55-64
-Filled in notes on chapter 19 and started on chapter 20.

HW: QUIZ - Thursday CH 18 & 19
Unit 1 TEST on 9/19
Eco issue due 9/23
Read CH 20
Ecology Video on Succession
* Many factors impact an ecosystem
* Ecological succession is a process where a community transforms itself until it is a stable
community
* 2 types of succession
* Primary Succession: No previous vegetation or growth
* Secondary Succession: Previous vegetation/growth
An example of PRIMARY succession:
The image above is PRIMARY succession because there WASN'T previous growth or vegetation.


Here is an example of SECONDARY succession:
The image above is SECONDARY succession because there WAS previous growth/vegetation.

Early Colonizers
* Biotic/Abiotic factors influence succession
* Early colonizers are fast growing forms of vegetation
* Can adapt to amount of sunlight
* Wind dispersed
* Some early colonizers have symbiotic relationships with environment

Thanks,
Mark

Next Scribe:**Will**

Monday, September 12, 2011

Scribe Post 9/12/11 - Biomes

Today we:
  • Collected EC Page 62A
  • Discussed new homework- UP 65. This is a biome map of the entire globe and a completed version can be found in the textbook on p 429. Some books might not have the map on this page, so look around that area, or use a credible online map.
  • For the rest of the class we completed the chart on UP 67-68 and watched short videos that described each type. There were 8 biomes: Tundra, Coniferous Forest, Deciduous Forest, Grasslands, Chaparral, Savannah, Desert, and Tropical Rain Forest.
  • Tundra: Long, bitter, cold winters, 0-10 degrees Celsius.
  • Less than 25 cm of precipitation a year, mostly snow
  • Has permafrost layer- Permanently frozen soil
  • Animals include wolves, caribou, polar bears. Snow covered land in winter, but many wildflowers, grasses and small shrubs live in the summer.
  • Coniferous Forest: Cold winters, short wet summers
  • Precipitation: 35-75 cm. mostly snow
  • Soil is nutrient poor and acidic because conifers produce acid
  • Wolves, moose, bears, with somewhat large, cone making, needled evergreens
  • Deciduous Forest: Cold winters, hot summers: -30 to 30 degrees Celsius
  • More precipitation than coniferous, so trees are larger (75-125 cm)
  • Lots of nutrients because of decomposed leaves
  • Cardinals, deer, big, broad leaved trees
  • Grasslands: 5 to 22 degrees Celsius
  • About as much precipitation as a Coniferous Forest (25-75 cm)
  • Soil is enriched by glacial deposits and decaying matter- good for farmland
  • Hawks, gophers, mostly grass with RARE trees
  • Chaparral (Temperate Shrublands): Ocean air provide mild rainy winters, long dry summers
  • Precipitation: a little less than grasslands (20-60 cm)
  • Periodic fires release nutrients, some seeds only germinate after fires
  • Animals mostly the same as Grassland, Spiny shrubs with evergreen leaves
  • Savannah: Warm all year