- Turned in Chapter 12 Notes
- Started Notes On Genetic Engineering
- UP p. 5-6
- UP p. 7-10
- UP p. 13-15
- Meet in Science Lab Tommorrow
Today we started our notes on Genetic Engineering:
DNA Technology- methods to study and manipulate genetic material
- corn can produce its own insecticide (prevents insects from eating it)
- bacteria can clean up pollution
- DNA fingerprinting to solve crimes (remember not fingerprints on a mirror rather your DNA code)
- advances towards curing fatal genetic diseases by getting missing enzyme
Human Genome Project:
- sequence all DNA in human genome
- to identify location and function of every gene
- Use of recombinant (recombined genetic material) to produce useful products
- Use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic science (anything cellular)
- Comparison of genomes (big part of eveloution)
- Use of human gene therapy for treatment of diseases (missing protein-given gene-incorperated in DNA and body can produce it- disease cured)
Background Info... 3 Ways to Transfer DNA!
- Transformation- the taking up of DNA from the fluid of a surrounding cell
- Transduction- the transfer of bacterial genes by a phage. The phage has a fragment of DNA from its previous host cell (stowaway). Now its injected in to the new host.
- Conjugation- a "male" bacterial cell attatches to a "female" cell by sex pili, a bridge forms, and DNA passes from the male to female.
- once DNA gets into a bacterial cell, by whatever method, it can integrate into recipient's chromosome, replacing part of the original DNA
Recombinant DNA Technology- lab techniques for combining genes from different sources and species into a single DNA molecule
- biotechnology- the use of organisms to perform practical tasks
- genetically modified (GM) organism- any organism that carries recombanant DNA
- transgenic organism- host that carries DNA from different species
- Genentech Biotech Co. knew amino acid sequence of the human insulin protein. Put the DNA sequence together, inserted them into E. Coli cells (bacterial cells), bacteria cranked out large quantities of insulin.
More Examples of Biotechnology
- Human Growth Horomone- used to come from human cadavers. Now grown in transgenic bacteria
- Erythropoitein (EPO)- mammalian cells grow this protein, a treatment for anemia
- corn- resists attack from parasite
- strawberries- bacterial proteins act as natural antifreeze
- potatoes- provide colera immunity
- transgenic sheep- carry human gene in milk, used for treatment of Cysitic Fibrosis
- No transgenic animals used in this water supply yet
Recombinant DNA Techniques- use bacterial plasmids (small and readily taken up by bacterial cells. Act as vectors, carriers that move genes from one another. Replicates any foreign DNA that has been inserted.
Remember: Always think of ethical and safety concerns!!
That's All!! Thank you!!Brianna
Next Scribe: Charles