## Tuesday, January 31, 2012

### Scribe Post for Tuesday, January 31, 2012

Today in Class
-Turned in Lab pages 17E AND 17F
-Took Notes on Hardy Weinberg
-Started to work on UP pages 31-36

Homework
-UP pages 31-36 due tomorrow!
-Begin studying for the upcoming evolution QUIZ!

Notes

-Modern Synthesis- the fusion of genetics with biology
Looks at gene pools (all of the alleles in all the individuals making up a population)
-There is no incomplete dominance in a gene pool!

-FREQUENCY- decimal answer (Ex: 0.8, 0.72, 0.38)
-PERCENTAGE- actual percentage (Ex: 80%, 72%, 38%)

-P is the relative frequency of the dominant allele. (A)

-Q is the frequency of the recessive allele. (a)

P+Q=1

-If you know p, to find q. q=1-p
-If you know q, to find p. p=1-q

-To find the frequency of a certain type of individuals (AA, Aa, aa), you would multiply the two percentages for that genotype.

-For example, in the Punnett square at the right, aa=q² or q*q
Since each q is equal to 0.2, then q²=0.2*0.2 or 0.04

-To find the frequency of pq, you would need to add the two frequencies 0.16 together since pq appears twice in the Punnett Square.
-This is also written as 2pq.

The general formula is p²+2pq+q²=1

-The Hardy Weinberg equilibrium is used to find the different genotypes in the population if the gene pool is completely stable (non-evolving).

-To prove that genetic recombination does not by itself change the overall composition of the gene pool, they examined the behavior of alleles in an idealized population where five conditions hold:
1. No mutations
2.No one individual can move in our out of the population
3. Large enough population
4. Random mating (no selective breeding)
5. Equally viable alleles (no natural selection)
-However, this doesn't usually happen in normal populations
-This is the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

G.H. Hardy G. Weinberg

Thanks everyone! Hope this was helpful!
-Sophia

Next Scribe- ***Eleni***

### Jan 30, 2010

Today in Class We…

l Turned in Page 5, web questions

l Checked in answers for UP p. 13~16 (Lab 26)

l Lab: Biochemical Evidence for Evolution

Homework…

l Bring calculator

l Finish UP p.17A~17F

2. Hemoglobin is: protein, composed of amino acids, chemical molecule.

5. The hemoglobin is

a) very similar between human and gorilla

b) not very similar between human and horse

c) not very similar between gorilla and horse

7. a)The chemical makeups of human and gorilla hemoglobin are very similar.

b)The chemical makeups of human and horse hemoglobin are not very similar.

c)The chemical makeups of gorilla and horse hemoglobin are not similar.

9. The base sequence of DNA is most similar between human and gorillas.

Biochemical Evidence for Evolution Lab

In this lab we:

Determined which animal’s more related to human (chimpanzee, monkey, cow or frog?)

Materials

l 5 testing well trays

l 1 vial simulated human antiserum

l 10 stirring picks

l 7 plastic dropping pipettes

l 1 wax pencil

l paper towel

l 1 vial of simulated human serum

l 1 vial of simulated cow serum

l 1 vial of simulated chimpanzee serum

l 1 vial of simulated frog serum

l 1 vial of simulated monkey serum

l water

Procedure

1. Take one tray, label the animals and the wells 1~8.

2. In each well, place the corresponding serum as add in water in proportion as shown in chart

 Well number Drops of serum Drops of water 1 8 0 2 7 1 3 6 2 4 5 3 5 4 4 6 3 5 7 2 6 8 1 7

3. shake the trays to mix the serums and water thoroughly

4. wait for 5 minutes to see the result

5. Record agglutination of each well in the data table

6. Repeat for all other serums

7. Rinse and dry all materials thoroughly.

Data Table

Use the following notations:

+++ heavy agglutination

++ medium agglutination

+ slight agglutination

_ No reaction

 Organism 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Human Cow Chimp Frog Monkey

Thank you all and have a nice day!

Next Scribe: ***Sophia***

## Thursday, January 26, 2012

### Thursday January 26, 2012

First In Class we showed our homework (pgs. 19-20)
****
By The Way We should know the differences between Darwin and Lamarck****

We took notes and here is what we learned:

We learned about Comparative Embryology, which is taking an embryo that is developing from one species and see the similarities between it and the other embryo from a different species. This is a compare and contrast.

-Humans have gill pouches when developing, which becomes part of our throats and ears

~During these stages many species like fish, frogs, snakes, birds, apes, and humans look more
ALIKE than different~

We also learned about Molecular Biology, which is taking the genetic code, such as the DNA or the RNA , or amino acids
that are created from one species and compare it to another. This demonstrates the close relationship between two species and proves that they descend from a common ancestor.

-Humans and apes are very close and that the DAN of humans and apes are so similar that only 2% of the whole DNA sequence are different.

~This is another way to prove that certain species are related to another species by comparing their DNA~

DARWI
N REVIEW

1st is Overproduction, which means that ALL species have an excessive amount of offspring.

With so many animals fighting over one source of food, this causes competition (Olympics for animals except it is for thei
r survival and is not always consistent with a set time)

This means certain animals lose, and other animals win. Unfortunately, the animals that lose die. But, for the animals that won they get to survive and pass on their traits that allowed them to win. These traits give them the advantage allowing their offspring to survive too.

This is what "Survival of the Fittest" mean
s

2nd is Individual Variation, means that the parents give the offspring traits that other parents my not have.

This allows variation to occur (diversity) and is the main reason why that certain animals look different than others, even though they have the same common ancestor.

3rd is the Differential Reproductive, which means nature becomes the force that changes species

This is what natural selection is where the environment decides who is fit to survive and reproduce, and who is to die.

*KNOW THIS DEFINITION FOR THE TEST----
is when favored traits accumulate in population over generations

We also went over examples of natural selection like the finches and how the finches on the Galapagos Islands have the same common ancestor as finches on the South American mainland.

For biology, we need to bring a CALCULATOR that can SQUARE NUMBERS and use a RADICAL SIGN (doesn't have to be fancy.)

HOMEWORK:
FINISH UP pg. 25-28

FINISH UP pg. 5 due Monday

FINISH UP pg. 13-16 due Monday

Thank You, Dustin

Next up is: ***Helen

## Wednesday, January 25, 2012

### Evolution

Today in class:
-Turned in course
recommendations sheet
-Turned in Lab 38
-Started Notes packet up until pg.13

Darwin and Natural Selection
- All life is connected
-
The basis for this kinship is evolution

- Evolution has transformed life on
Earth from its earliest beginnings to its extensive diversity today
- Evolutionary view came into focus in 1859 with Darwin's book

- One of Britain's most renowned biologists
- Published The Origin of Species 17 years later.

- Was the most influential scientist in the development of modern biology.
- 2 main points in book:

1) species living today descended from ancestral species= "descent with modification" = evolution
ex.)The diversity of bears is based on different modifications of a common ancestor from which all bears descended.
2) The mechanism for evolution is "natural selection"
-Darwin loved nature, Disliked medical school. Became a minister. Became a naturalist for a voyage around the world when he was 22 years old.
- Darwin's "Voyage of the HMS Beagle
"
- Observed and collected thousands of specimens, Observed adaptation
s of organisms. Most of animals of Galapagos Islands live nowhere else in world, but they resemble species living on the South American mainland. It was as though the animals strayed from mainland, then diversified as they adapted to environments on the different islands.
- Darwin saw large diversity of animals on Galapagos Islands, off coast of South America
-If an ocean separated islands, it isolated 2 population
s of a single species. The populations could diverge more and more in appearance as each adapted to local environmental conditions.
-After many generations, 2 populations could become dissimilar enough to be separate species-14 species in the case of the birds called Galapagos finches.(This is now called divergent evolution)
-They have beak shapes and coloration that are adapted to their environments
-The beaks are adapted to certain food sources on the different
islands; the colors protect them from predators
-Q:How did Darwin explain these adaptions, or different beaks?
-A:Natural Selection! 3 main points:
1) Far more offspring are produced than the environm
ent can hold. Overproduction leads to a struggle for existence among the individuals of a population.
2) Individuals in a population vary in many traits no two individuals are alike.
3) Those individuals with traits best suited to the local environment will have the greatest reproductive success. They will leave the greatest number of surviving fertile offspring. They will reproduce more of the same. This unequal repr
oductive success=natural selection.
-Nature decides what traits are most fit.
-Adaptation is the accumulation of favorable variations in a popul
ation over time.
-EX.)beaks well equipped for available food sources, and markings that reduce predation=finches survive to produce more.(Survival of the
Fittest)
-Darwin also looked at "Artificial Selection" going on
with farming.
-Humans have been modifying other
species for centuries by selecting breeding stock with certain traits.
-These vegetables and flowers no longer look like their ancestors.
Artificial Selection in pets- have been bred for human fancy. Dog
breeds-all are descendants from one ancestral population of wolves
"Humans" screened
the heritable traits of populations instead of "nature" or the natural environment.
-Natural selection in action today: Antibiotic resistant forms of tuberculosis causing bacteria have made the disease a threat again in the U.S.
-Humans are connected by descent from African ancestors.
-Example of natural selection-abuse of antibiotics has sped up the evolution of antibiotic resi
stant bacteria.
-Evolution of pesticide resistant insects: by spraying crops with poisons to kill insect pests, humans have favored the reproductive success of insects with inherent resistance to the poisons.
-Related species of insects called mantids have diverse shapes and colors that evolved in different environments. Camouflage is an example of evolutionary adaptation.

Evolution-2 modern definitions:

A. the genetic composition of a population changes over time
B. all life desce
nded from a common ancestor, from the earliest microbes to modern day organisms
-Darwin is ranked as the 4th most influential person of the past 1,000 yrs.
-Most scientists in Darwin's day thought:
-Earth was young(6,000 yrs old)
-Earth was populated by millions of unrelated species
-Darwin's book challenged that,and was radical for its time
An example of a camouflage is shown above, of a leaf mantid.
a that life arose in water, and simpler forms of life preceded more complex ones.
-Aristotle(Greek philosopher)held that species are fixed or permanent, and do not evolve(are static).
-Buffon(1700s)(French naturalist) studied fossils-said Earth may be much older than 6,000 yrs. Proposed that a species in a fossil could be an ancient version of a living species.
-Lamarck(1800s)(French naturalist)said that life evolves through adaption ex.)a powerful bird's beak.

-He said "Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics"- by using or not using body parts, one can develop certain characteristics, which can pass on to offspring.

Ex.)if you exercise beaks and get stronger you can pass that trait down to offspring.(Use & Disuse Theory) Incompatible with modern genetics.
-Lyell(Scottish geologist)-said ancient Earth was sculpted by gradual geologic processes that continue today.(Mountains,earthquakes,erosion.)Earth was very old. Gradualism principle.
-Wallace(British naturalist)(1850s)developed a concept of natural selection identical to Darwin-both were presented to the scientific community. Lamarck(shown above)
-Darwin's book evidenced 2 major points:
-Organisms on Earth today descended f
rom ancestral species, accumulating different modifications or adaptations-"descent with modification." History of life is analogous to a tree.
-Natural selection is the mechanism for descent with modification
What is some evidence in support of evolution? (5 examples)
1.)The Fossil Record

Fossils- preserved remnants or impressions left by organisms that lived in the past
-Most found in
sedimentary rocks
-Younger strata are on top of older ones; positions of fossils in the strata reveal their
relative age
-Fossil record-chronology of fossil appearances in rock layers, marking passing of geologic time
-Oldest fossils date from
3.5 billion yrs ago, are prokaryotes.
-
Fishlike fossils are oldest vertebrates, then amphibians, reptiles, then mammals and birds.
-
Paleontologists- scientists who study fossils-found fossilized whales that connect them to their land-dwelling ancestors.
2.)
Biogeography- the geographic distribution of species
Ex.)Tropical animals in South America are more closely related to species in South American
deserts than to species in African tropics.
Ex.)
Australia has a diversity of pouched mammals(marsupials) but few placental mammals. They are hospitable to placental mammals. Unique Australian wildlife evolved on island continent in isolation from regions where early placental mammals diversified.
-Biogeography makes little sense if species were individually placed in suitable enviroments. Instead, species are where they are because they
evolved from ancestors that inhabited those regions.
3.)
Comparative Anatomy- the same skeletal elements make up the forelimbs of humans,cats,whales, and bats- all are mammals.
-The functions differ, but
structural similarity indicate they descended from a common ancestor- homology.
Ex.)forelimbs of diverse mammals, all have same
bones
Ex.)human spine and knee joints derived from 4-legged mammals-are subject to sprains, spasms,common injuries because of our
bipedal posture.
Ex:Vestigial Structures
- These are some of the most interesting homologous structures which have marginal, if any, use or importance to the organism. They are historical remnants of structures which had important functions in ancestors.
Ex.) the whales of today lack hind limbs, but have vestiges of pelvic and leg bones of their four-footed terrestrial ancestors.
-Vestigial organs are evidence of evolution-shows linkage to a past ancestor.

Homework:
-UP pg 19-20
-UP pg 13-16 due Monday

See you in class!
~~Nazia~~

NEXT SCRIBE:**DUSTIN**