Thursday, May 24, 2012

Fetal Pig

What we did in class today:
            - Corrected and Stamped lab 54 & 55
            - Started going over respiration notes
            - Fetal Pig Lab due Tomorrow!
            - Fetal Pig Test tomorrow (Fill in the blank) !!!
            - UP. 47-56 (all you can do)
            - Crossword due 6/1
Studying For Tomorrows Test:

          External Anatomy~
                - Anterior and Posterior End
                - Dorsal
                - Ventral
                - Nipples
                - Genitals
                - Umbilical Cord, Arteries, and Veins.
         *Male VS. Female* (internal)  Below: Urogenital System v v v v v v

      Circulatory System:

          - Page 2 in Pink Fetal Pig Packet (Know What, Where, and Function)
          - Labs 54 and 55 (don't forget to color code diagrams!)
          - Recognize Male VS. Female (Pictured Above)

Found some great quiz video's ... Get a sheet of paper out and pause to answer questions!!!
External Structures
Thoracic Structures
Urogenial Structures

Thanks! Happy Studying... 

*****NEXT SCRIBE IS MARK***** long live bacon

Tuesday, May 15, 2012

Scribe post May 15th

Circulation Note Review

We've been studying the circulatory system!
  • helps exchange materials
  • internal transport
  • cell diffusion
  • O2 from lungs-->blood-->tissue
  • CO2 from tissue-->blood-->lungs

There are two types of circulatory systems, single loops and double loop

We have a double circulatory system. The path of blood goes as follows:

1. Right Ventricle ---> Lungs (pulmonary semi-lunar valve)
2. Pulmonary Arteries
3. Capillaries (O2 diffuses into tissue, CO2 diffuses out)
4. Pulmonary Veins
5. Left Atrium (bicuspid valve)
6. Left Ventricle
7. Aorta
8. Capillaries (O2 diffuses into tissue, CO2 diffuses out)
9. Superior and Inferior vena cava (superior on top)
10. Right Atrium (tricuspid valve)


Next scribe: Charles

Thursday, May 10, 2012

Scribe Post  for May 9, 2012

Today In Class:
-Got back worksheets and went over them
-Went over Nutrient lab
-Took the Design a Quiz
-Reviewed for Test May 10!

Today we went over the digestion worksheets, the frog lab, the Nutrient lab and also got our Tissues and Excretion quizzes back.

Important things for test:
-Go over labs because there may be questions
-Know the different enzymes, what they do and where they are found.

And  that was it for today!
Don’t forget to study and good luck!

Next Scribe:Anna 

Monday, May 7, 2012

Scribe Post 5/7

Hi Class!!!

In class today we-
  • Collected lab 55 (frog lab)
  •  Stamp nutrient pre-lab
  • Went over class data from calorimetry lab
  • went over nutrient lab pre-lab 
  • Practice quiz
  • Design a quiz due TOMORROW!
  • Finish calorimetry lab 
  • Test Thursday, Study!!!
*** Just a reminder about the design a quiz! It should be 20 questions. the 

questions should be thought provoking and at an honors course level. Make sure that you use variations of questions like fill in the blank, multiple choice, and matching. Add at least one diagram in it. 

For a long time in class today we reviewed the calorimetry lab. Everyone was a little bit confused of how to find answers to how find energy content in a food. 

Remember these things, the basic formula for solving the energy content in a food is

Energy content of food = Energy gained by water / The change in the mass of food 

Before you can do that formula, you have to be able to find the energy gained by water. This is the formula for how to solve it.

Energy gained by water = (mass of water) x (Changet of water) x (4.18 J/g C)

Before you can calculate the energy of your food you have to divide your answer by 100. this is because it is in joules and needs to be converted into kilojoules.

Practice that and make sure you know how to do it because you need to understand it for the test!

Next we went over the pre-lab for the nutrient lab!

We will be testing foods for protein, simple sugars, starch, and lipids

We will do these by a variety of tests.. these test are.......

Iodine Test-
Tests for starch. this test is when you use Lugol's iodine solution. this yellow-brown solution will mix with the food. if there is starch present it will turn blue-black in color.  

Benedict's Test - 
Tests for simple sugars. It is blue in color, but when there is sugar it will change to green yellow or brick red.

Biuret Test-
Tests for proteins. When you add the solutions to food and stir, the mixture will either stay blue for negative results or turn pink-purple for positive results. 

Brown Paper Bag Test- (sounds dangerous)
Basically you leave your food on the brown paper bag and if it leaves an oily smeary translucent smear it is positive for lipids. If it does not, then it is negative..

Also remember to bring your own food to test!

Have a good night!



Thursday, May 3, 2012

Scribe Post 5/3

Today in class we...

  • Finished the notes packet
  • Watched a video

Tonight's Homework...

  • Digestion handouts due Friday
  • UP p.47-51 Prelab due Friday
  • Lab #55 due Monday
  • Design a Quiz due Tuesday (closer than you think!)

In the Notes...

  • The stomach engages in chemical, and mechanical digestion
    • HCl, gastric juice, Rennin, and Pepsin chemically digest
    • Constant churning from the stomach mechanically digests
  • After the stomach, the "food" moves into the duodenum of the small intestine
    • Villi and microvilli absorb the nutrients into the capillaries
    • Villi and microvilli increase the surface area, expediting absorption
Moving on to something a little off topic in the notes...
  • The old Food Pyramid is no longer effective (Right)
    • Based on "servings" which can vary
    • Made in 1992, it has recently been revived
  • The new Pyramid focuses on easily measurable items
    • Orange= Grains; 5-8 oz.
    • Green= Vegetables; 2.5 cups
    • Red= Fruits; 2 cups
    • Yellow= Oils
    • Blue= Milk; 3 cups
    • Purple= Beans and Meats; 5.5 oz.

  • Eating disorders are seriously dangerous, and present all around the world
  • Malnutrition: a deficiency of one or more of the essential nutrients
    • There are 8 critical amino acids for survival
  • Kwashiorkor: Inadequate protein intake. Lack of blood proteins lead to swollen limbs
  • Undernutrtion: Lack of the essential amino acids forces the body to break down muscles and brain
  • Obesity: Too high of a ratio of weight to height
    • 25% of Americans suffer from obesity
  • Fat Cravings: Believed to be an evolutionary advancement, a craving for fattening foods
  • Anorexia and Bulimia are more common in the US
    • Largely caused by harsh media portrayals of "pretty"

Next Scribe: **MINJI WILL***

Wednesday, May 2, 2012

Scribe Post 5/2/201

  ***Just an FYI in class today Jeremy said I had the scribe post tonight and not Alexis which is why I am being scribe today, in case you were confused***


  • Had a demo
  • Took notes
  • Had two more demos to go with the notes
We took a lot of notes on enzymes today so if you weren't there it was the wrong day to miss ;) Luckily I am posting this to help you out :)


We put unsalted Saltines in our mouths (without chewing) until they dissolved.  Then we compared the before taste (right when we put them in our mouths) to the after taste (when they were mushy). 

          What SHOULD have happened: The after taste should have been sweeter than the before taste.
          WHY this should have happened: The enzymes in the saliva in your mouth have begun to break          down the cracker into simple sugars (ie: glucose) hence the sweeter taste.
          HOW this relates to the unit: The break down of food in your mouth after ingestion (not to be confused with inDIgestion *coughjeremycough*) into simple sugars is the beginning of the digestive process.


  • First we finished the filling in the diagram on page 15 (shown below)

  • Then we filled out the chart on page 16. The organs and enzymes listed below are things that we took notes on either on the diagram or the chart.
MOUTH : chews, lubricates and uses tongue to swallow food
  • SECRETES- about 1 liter of saliva per day
  • ENZYMES- salivary amylase (ACTIVITY OF DIGESTION) which breaks down starch into simple sugars (like in the cracker demo)
  • SECRETES- nothing
  • ENZYMES- none
  • ACTIVITY OF DIGESTION- Moves food from mouth to stomach with peristalsis (constriction and relaxation of the muscles to move the food downward). Connects pharynx to stomach.
STOMACH : Food is in the stomach for 2-6 hours. It can hold about 2 liters of food and/or liquid. It churns the food and the lining of the stomach is coated with mucus to prevent it from eating itself.
                  -Gastric juice: Has a pH of 8-2
                  -HCl: activates pepsin and kills bacteria
                  -Pepsin: breaks proteins down into amino acids
                  -Rennin: works with milk proteins (curdles milk by separating solids from the water)

SMALL INTESTINE : 2 1/2 cm wide and 6m long. Completes digestion and absorption. Covered in villi and microvilli to increase its surface area which in turn increases its ability to absorb things.
  • SECRETES- Injestinal juice
                  -Peptidase: breaks  proteins down into amino acids
                  -Maltase: breaks maltose into two glucose molecules
                  -Sucrase: breaks sucrose down into glucose and fructose
                  -Lactase: breaks lactose down into glucose and galactose

APPENDIX : Found near the start of the large intestine.  Food is not supposed to pass through it (accessory organ) and if food does enter it, it may need to be surgically removed.

LARGE INTESTINE (COLON) : 5cm wide and 1.5m long. Begins by ascending (going up), then transversing (going horizontally) then descending (going down) then finishes by being sigmoid (going in a squiggly line).
  • SECRETES- nothing
  • ENZYMES- none
  • ACTIVITY OF DIGESTION- Absorbs H2O and uses peristalsis to compress feces which are made up of things like cellulose and e. coli
PANCREAS : Accessory organ
  • SECRETES- Pancreatic juice
                 -Trypsin: breaks down protein into amino acids
                 -Lipase: breaks down fats(lipids) into glycerol and fatty acids
                 -Pancreatic amylase: breaks down starch into simple sugars

LIVER : Accessory organ
                - Bile juice: bile salts emulsify*** fats
***Emulsify is when you take a big glob of something and break it up into a bunch of little globs. This increases the surface area making the fats more accessible to lipase.



           Mrs. Andrews demonstrated how rennin works by putting some store bought rennin into a glass of milk and mixing it around. The milk curdles and solid chunks appeared in a clearish liquid.


          We were given an observations sheet to record what happened during the demo. In the first column we recorded the characteristics of Jello (ie: solid but squishy). Then Mrs. A told us to hypothesize as to what would happen if you made Jello with fresh pineapple in it and what would happen if you made it with canned pineapple in it. She then showed us examples of what would happen. The Jello with fresh pineapple in it stayed a liquid but the Jello with canned pineapple in it solidified. This is because when the pineapple is canned it is heated up which gets rid of the enzymes that reacted with the Jello in the fresh pineapple example. Then Mrs. A told us to hypothesize about what would happen if Jello were made with Adolph's Meat Tenderizer and McCormick's Meat Tenderizer. Then she showed us two examples of what would happen in both cases. The one with Adolph's Meat Tenderizer was fairly solid but still a little liquidy and the cup with McCormick's Meat Tenderizer was mostly liquid and just a little solidified. This happened because the different enzymes in the tenderizers reacted with the Jello and did not allow it to solidify properly.


  1. Lab #55 - UP p. 41-46 due Monday (we should have some time in class to work on this)
  2. Digestion handouts due Friday
  3. Design a quiz due 5/8      


5/1/2012 blog post

Today in class.... We started digestion notes
We took a quiz on Chapter 21

Homework: Nothing due tomorrow
Digestion packet do Friday
Work on design-a-quiz

Note: For the notes, we labled a diagram (in the notes packet) that wasnt on the moodle, it looks a lot like the following picture:

Dont forget to also label the sphincters (could not find a diagram with them, but they are at the base of the entrance and exit of the stomach).
We also went over the for stages of digestion: Indigestion, digestion, absorption, elimination.

Thats pretty much all we did. Next scribe: ****Alexis*****